Attitudes and Search
This article was
delivered in a conference under the title of “ Why Hazaras, leaving
their ancestors land, Afghanistan?” It was convened on Sunday 15.
April 2001, in Melbourne, Australia.
Mr. Qayum Bashir made
a detail report about. We can read in one part as, “ This gathering
had been done by 'Association of Hazaras in Australia'. In it a groups
of political- cultural experts, students and scholars, were
“ Hajji Jawad
Mohammadi, the president of this association, during warm welcoming of
participants, put emphasize on a lot of current existing problems and
challenges of Afghanistan. He during his speech asked from audiences
to talk about specific needs and analyze them deeply for reaching to
aims. At the end he participated in a session of questions and
In the mentioned
report, Bashir expressed his hope that such a conference would be
convened more and more in Australia and world too.
He thanked Mr. S. R.
Tarzi, for sending an article on these topic from Germany.
“Afghanistan, a big and
beautiful treasure of ethnics”
Morgensterne, the famous linguist on Afghanistan.
Seddiq Rahpoe Tarzi
We and our Existence
This is the environment, and
the surroundings in which we are living, puts profound effect on shaping
of our body, color, and features of face, and even our nervous system. In
the other words, we are product of geography situation and condition in
which we live.
As it is
bright and clear, intelligent and Wise Man or Homo Sapiens, from among the
ranks of diverse living creatures through the long run evolution process,
in the upper part of the Paleolithic, just three hundred thousand years
ago in appeared in Africa. In this period he uttered the first words,
made better work tools and buried their dead in the ground.
This amazing transformation can
be called as a cultural change. Thus the behavior of modern human draw a
clear separation line between itself and other mankind. This
transformation Donald Johnson, Prof. of archeology described it as
Creative Explosion. Thus on the species was bases of several
facts as: Anatomy, linguistics, archeology and anthropology and
genealogy, the cultural and mental transformations, shows that homo
sapiens or wise man, elsewhere in the world replace the homicides.
Race, the Crises Creating Word
Wherever the human being raised
in nature and existence, it adapted itself according that environment.
This difference which emerged due to various conditions, slowly embodied
in the word of race, and entered into human culture.
In this line, efforts were had
been made to divide people based on appearance, physical differences or
formals such as color, body, size of nose, hair types like dark or bright
colors, smooth or curl, the color of eye, especially the variety of skin
color. These outlooks created the big crises and the outcome was emerging
of higher and lower races and casts. It paved the way for blazing of human
burning stove for eliminating the lower race.
Then with widening of
knowledge's circles slowly but regularly, this term of races lost its
meaning and so. The outcome of scientist and scholars researches and
finding brought this result that some features like: Color of skin,
faces,etc. is the direct effects of evolutions and basic principe of the
power of adaptation of living to their environments.
Thus its clear that special
features of human and every living things faces and bodies are the outcome
of adaptation to different surroundings. The with the passing of time and
a lot of other factors, it would be embedded in envelope of gene. Then
genes has the abilities to bear and transfer of these features.
The clear example is color of
skin. The whiteness and darkness of color depends on how the specific
people were under the radiation of sun. We can find the darkest skin color
in tropical ares. Then if we go fare away from it, the color became
brighter and brighter. In two poles there are the people with brightest of
color. The bear who live in the Arctic area has white color and the one
who live in tropical ares has the dark one. In this regard, compliance
with various environmental samples from the sea to the highest mountain
peaks, forests and burning deserts can be seen. Human in the line of
adaptation are living from sub-Saharan Africa to snow covered Alaska.
Thus a belief in racial differences, let the super races, belongs to the
past. Globalization and the erosion of borders eradicate this idea slowly.
The struggle between people who
believe to races division and persons who think that this idea from view
point of science is baseless, continuing.
From Race to Ethnicity
Slowly, the ethnic divisions
lost is ground and conception of ethnicity took its place.
For studying of the presence of
different ethnics in Afghanistan, first of all it is necessary that we
look on its geographical shape and the environment.
As we know, Afghanistan is
situated at the heart Eurasia. Eurasia is a wide pasture land without the
forest, and half desert. It links Asia and Europe. This area extended
from the Mediterranean to China. The roads which connect East part of it
to West and North to South, makes it as a crossroad. On these roads, only
in historical periods- not we talking about prehistoric - Mongolians,
Sakes, Greece, India, Persia, etc. have passed. As Sophia R. Bowlby the
famous archaeologist says, “ Now we can see theses different ethics
We can notice the close
relationship between ethnic diversity and nature and environment of this
These diversity of environments and nature has
put its mark on diversity of this land population.
From the view points of
archeology we can trace the roots of this ethnicity. The archeology
studies the ways of life of these people from primitive work tools to the
developed technological one. What is important points in the science of
archaeology is that is eradicate the myths and stories from the fact and
draw a real picture of events.
We can tell simply that most
part of human beings in this land for access to natural resources and
sources for their life were depending to local sources an springs. For
these causes, accesses to sources, origin and springs of nature had the
determined role on his life and has shaped his style of life too. Another
element that has played a role in shaping is the weather and climate.
It is very clear the scholars
divided historical time in two parts: Pre-history and history. We call
the pre-history to the time that human being with the help of reason which
had developed through the complicated process of evolutions, were divided
form hominids. He started to make work tools first of stone and later
replaced it by metal. This process continuing yet too.
Prehistoric era has close link
with the traditional history of the different people on the world and od
Our Traditional History
As we knew our knowledge of this
sector on our land are covered in aura of myths, stories and legends. It
has the roots in the stories that came down from generation to generation
orally. In the text of these stories we can find the mythical figures of
Avestan and Veda. The new version is Khodai Namak, the mains source
epical book of Shah Nama (King Book).
This traditional history or
tradition stories talk about myths of Pishdadi, Kayani, Parthian and
Sasanid. In our traditional history, instead of critical review, we face
the combination of legends, myths, stories, imagination, opinion-oriented,
moralization, the heroic deeds and loyalty, ambition, the victim, the
aspirations, hopes etc. In these myths and stories, destiny of man is
determined and human being is captured and imprisoned to specified fate.
This is very strange that our
famous historians, without taking a critical view on then, entered these
myths and stories in history. From Faiz Mohammad Kateb1912, to Ahmad Ali
Kohzad,1944, Gholam Mohammad Ghobar,1967, Abdul Habibi, 1967, and Mohammad
Seddiq Farhang,1992, followed the same path of ignorance.
From this points there are
different stone times as: Paleolithic which divided into Lower, Middle and
Upper. Lower paleolithic continued more than 60,000 years.
We had found some effects of this period in Ab e Estada (Lack) in Navor
desert of Ghazni province. Middl paleolithic was continued
from 50 t0 30,000 years. This period is marked by small and tiny
instruments and presence of human as Neanderthal. The effect of it, are
had been found in the Dara e Kur or valley of the blind, in Badakhshan.
Upper paleolithic. It continued for twenty-five thousand years.
This period is between hunting and fruit gathering. In Qara Kamar we did
find a lot of this time effects. Archaeologists believe that the
relationship and interaction between humans and wild goats and sheep has
provided a way to tame them. This was the time that we still used the
stone as pots. We had not made pottery, and
from clay yet. The closer
stone period was neo -paleolithic. It was six thousand years ago.
Its a fact that after the end of
last glacier period, human being from depending on prepared natural
foodstuff switched to taming animals and cultivating corns. Some call it
the revolution of neo – pleolithical. There are clear signs that the
development of of pre historic culture in Afghanistan have roots in inside
of this land, not from moving of people from west. Its worth to mention
that there are deep differences between the political geography and
natural geography's conceptions. The first one confined in the now a day
political borders (1880s), while the second one have a wider circle from
Central Asia to Sind reviver and from Pamir mountains to Sistan.
From the collapse of Indus and
Helmand, civilization at the end of the second millennium, BC, we are
facing with a black hole of informations in this area. During this period,
with the slow development within this community, mobility, the migration,
the exchange of trade and wars, the different ethnic groups take shape and
inhabiting this land.
Inscriptions, the Beginning of
This a basic principle that for
every country around the world, her history begins with the inscription.
Prior to that time belongs to prehistory. Those who are seeking
historical events in vida and Avestan religious poems, try to victimize
this clear line at baseless pride.
In the geographical area of
Afghanistan – not our current political boundaries - the inscriptions of
Darius (468-521 BC.) which had been inspirited in 516 BC are the oldest
one yet. They were discovered and we have them. We can find in these
inscriptions the name of the provinces which are in modern borders of
Afghanistan. The province's name can be seen in three inscriptions of
Bisotun and in his castle in Persepolis and Naqsh-e Rostam in which dated
516 BC. The names of provinces are:
1 – Haraiva / Areia
2 - Bacteria / Baxtish
3 - Thatagush / Sattagydia
(Ghazni to the Indus Valley),
4 - Arachosia / Harauvatish
(Farah, Helmand and Kandahar),
5 - Zarangiana-Drangiana. /
Zaranka (Zaranj or Sistan),
6 - Gandara / Gandhara. (Kabul
The Languages of these
inscriptions are: ancient Persia, Akkadian (Babylonian language) and
neo-Elamite or Elamite.
Within the present borders of
modern Afghanistan, the first inscriptions in Aramaic language was
discovered in Darunta bridge in 1932. This is one of Ashoka decrees in
Prakrit language which belong to middle Indian language. It is also
associated with Aramaic language too. It is worth to mention that
Khroshtian letter. It has been taken form Aramaic letter and Brahmans made
some changes to it.
Then we are witnessed the
arrival of great Alexander (331 BC). During the encounter between his
successors, Parthians and Bactrians proclaimed independence in third
century BC. Later for a long time Greek - Bactrian monarchs ruled here.
Yueh-chi in the year 160 BC form China borders, entered Central Asia and
replaced Saks who long time ruled Pamir, Kashghar, Khotan hand reached
even to Herat and Sistan. The next tribes of Yueh-chi in 120-80 BC
passed Amo River and settled in Bakhter. They replaced Greek- Bactrian
rulers a captured their land in the north of Hindukosh.
India and the Parthians in the
year 25 AD as a great power passed to south of Hindukosh mountains and
reached to valley of Sind and Panjab. Kushan prince enters the scene in
year 78. R.S. Davis writes in this case as, “Chinese Yearbooks are
providing a detailed descriptions of how the king of Kushan attacks on
An-hsi ( Parthian or Hindu-Parthian) attacks and capture Kao-fo (Kabul ),
Pu-ta and Chin-pin (Punjab and Kashmir) and destroyed them.”
After that we are witness of
battles between Kushans and Sasanians in the third century.
Form one of Samudragupta
(335-380) inscription in Allah Abad of India we knew that Kabul and
Gandhara were built by Chi-to-lo family and one of Yueh-chi great prince
had played a big role. He made Peshawar his capital. Then at the end of 4th
century the different Hone tribes raided the Bakhter.
belonged to Yueh-chi tribe in 484 were able to throe down Firuz Shah,
Sasanid and made a great Empire from Central Asia to the Indus Valley.
They also had a link with Kushanians too.
As we know, Arabs with Islam
religion, defeated the Sasanid in 642.They after two hundred years of
their campaign, with the help of the local people reached here. But,
their political domination, did not survive more than a few days. Nurestan
is a small example. They kept their beliefs and religion till1886. People
with the help of freedom love feelings raise in the local rules of of
Taherian, Safwyan, Samanids, Ghaznians etc. They kept their culture,
especially their language, with all the means of defenses and ended the
domination Caliph of Baghdad.
During the same century in the
East mountains of Afghanistan, powerful non-Islamic Turkic and Hindu
Royal family ruled.
Thus we can see that in the
process of above mentioned events, a beautiful rainbow of ethnic and
languages mosaic have taken shape here.
It is very natural that Mr.
Morgensterne, the famous ethnic and linguistic scholar call afghanistan
as, “ A treasure of ethnics and languages.
Word of Ethnic
The term of ethnic apply to a
group of people that their members have common cultural heritage which in
its essence is language. It shows and denoting
origin by birth or descent rather than by present nationality.
Its clear that ethnical varieties and multi ethical is
a form of complicated society. We can find this form in all human
The presence of different ethnic groups, are the
outcome of migrations and mobility of human being. This was a form of
living in the length of centuries, before human being settle down on a
specific place. The next cause is the long wars between different ethnic
groups. In the long run, some people gone under the rule of this or that
In this country, according to
the latest survey which had been done by Encyclopedia of Languages under
the editorship of Paul M. Lewit and was published in 2009, there are
49 different language. Among them there is on death language. Two
languages had not been classified yet. This 49 languages are divided into
six major groups. We classified them have ranked them according to time:
It links to the Dravidian
languages. Our people, before Indo-European language speakers arriving
here in this area, they were spoken in this language. A large part of them
under pressure of these aggressors migrated to the south of India,
however, a small group remained in Baluchistan and Afghanistan and even
have speakers form East
India to Ireland Persian, Pashto and languages other 36 languages in the
country belonged to this category.
linguists believe, from a historical perspective people of Altai were
spread across the plains or steppes of Central Asia. Their original
location is in the Altai Mountain range. This word has driven from
Mongolian word of Altan word which means gold. It can be called the
Golden Mountain. These mountains connect Central Asia, Russia, Kazakhstan,
Mongolia and China. In this section, three Turkish, Mongolian and Manchu
Tungus are main branches. Eight other languages are affiliated to this
belong to Semitic languages which closely linked to Hebrew or Jewish and
neo-Aramaic. There are a small group of Arabs survivors who speak in
Persian Arabized language. They are living in parts of Maimana, Aqcha and
or Afghan Sing Language:
They are living in some districts of Nengarhar, Kabul, Mazar, Herat and
Kandahar. They belong to the deaf class too.
We can find people at the bank of Warduji river, in the East of Ishkashim
who speak to this language.
in Lugar some people speak it.
The State and Status of Ethnicity: View Points
In Afghanistan, specially in
villages, the ethnic and tribal groups have strong role that an
individual. This primitive and little community although look simple and
uncomplicated but they have such a strong power of assimilating that every
newcomer people and culture are absorbing in them. Then they continued
life. This is a long process which has a life of millenniums. The
political institutions although have changed, but have deep roots in this
cultural values and social structure. This is the open secret of
foreigner's big mistake in their attitudes to this structure.
The social distinctive
characteristics in Afghanistan are classified in local, tribal and ethnic
terms. This ethnic unit is highly flexible and are combinations of tribe,
clan, sub-clan etc. with a wider circle.
On the other hand, the clear
ethnic boundaries in some cases are so confused and mixed together that
its evaluation and analyzing are very difficult experience. In many
cases, these borders are entering such inside one another that within them
the marked lines are tangled. More the level of mixture of different
ethnic groups are higher the separation of them are more difficult.
In some clear cases, we are
seeing that an ethnic in one region has more closer relations with its
neighbors who belong to other ethnic group, than to its ethnic group who
are living in other part of country.
As we have seen in the period of
neo-Paleolithic – 6 years ago – beside the people who were living here, a
lot of other people form North and West entered there too. Thy brought
with themselves new culture and new language too. These newcomers settled
here. They were absorbed by the local culture and way of previous people
life. We can see this phenomena in big and deep valleys where the mighty
rivers were flowing.
On the other side, these deep
and narrow valleys were a good refuge and haven place for keeping the old
culture, behaviors and languages of pervious people who were far away form
big cites and rule of governors. Du to this fact that high peak mountains
of North-East is a safe haven for living of different people and
languages. I think that best example is Nurestan which its old name was
Balurestan (Land of Crystal). The great Alexander with his great army
could not conquer it and passed from her banks. Arabs who entered in 7th
century to our land, could not changes their old pagans who worshiped
nature and animals, to Islam. It was in 1886 that under the pressure of
Amir Abdolrahman (r.1880-1900) that they were connected to center and
became Moslem. A lot of them were escaped to Chiral of Pakistan and are
keeping their old religious, culture and customs. The other area is
Badakhshan where lot of Pamirian languages are spoken now.
The Measures for identify Ethnics
There are four indexes and
measure for identifying ethnic groups:
The continuation of birth process, common cultural
values, common behaviors and last but not least what they describe
THEMSELVES and other recognize for these specific features. The fourth and
the last one as OWN and OTHER make a clear border between ethnic groups.
Here the ethnic groups can be divided into two
sections: non-tribal and tribal. Those who have shared and
connected them to tribal ancestor, never mind, real or imaginary, myth or
legend. The genealogy or family tree line, goes always through the father,
or man. Afghans (Pashto speakers) can be fit to the framework of this
In the second part, where there is no a place for
genealogy, they try to connect themselves to their birthplace or living
place. Hazaras although have tribal structure, but outside of this small
structure, relate themselves to the Mongols. Some people, are trying to
name the Shiite, a sect of Islamic religion or Persian language as their
symbols of identity.
Some Afghans (Pashtuns) trying to take the physical
appearance as a symbol of identity. However, during the past centuries
that banned marriage borders between ethnic groups had been broken, this
concept has lost its meaning.
Coexistence of Different Ethnic Groups
As we have stated clearly, in this land as Afghanistan,
a lot of different clans, tribes and ethnic groups on the line of finding
ways of life and continuity of existence, lived together. However, it is
clear that during the centuries and millenniums because of a lot of
causes, they had passed a difficult time and had been in war and peace
Since the beginning of history, which starts form time
of inscriptions, we have been witnesses of all sided of wars,
aggressions and attacks from all parts. On the same time we see that the
same people are made a lot of different creative works, cultural
production and civilizations. This is a clear fact that during this
processes, very colorful cultural diversity in all sectors of life,
language, clothes, poems, songs, etc boosted and emerged. Due to this
facts are that we have a of society like a beautiful portray of mosaic.
Finding answers for the basic needs and adapting to different and
difficult conditions paved the ground for unity of primitive human. They
were the fundamental causes of shaping collective cooperation among them.
The life was continuing in this framework. As we knew finding answers to
these needs, have a lot of different ways. For getting and making better
conditions, and meeting these needs, they shaped different social
institutions as clans, tribes, sub-tribes and ethnic groups. We can see
the highest form of these institutions is Nation. A nation for arranging
and the management of social and political affairs, shaped state and then
In our country its modern
political framework was established in 1880s. Before we are witness that
its ruling area some times had a wider circle and in the next time narrow
one. In this time the basic thoughts for building a national state and
ending the tribal and ethnic groups
institutions, were formed. However, this process due to the political
crisis after 1930s, fell apart. This issue occurred on a such time that
the old wounds of social and political were on the line of cure and
elimination. This bad fact driven the way of solving the ethnical issues
in the dark shadow.
Ways of Solutions: Two
Types of Attitudes
First dissolve and remove
Politicians and sociologists emphasize on the national
consciousness, but, I believe that till the social relations remain and
continue to exist in the form of pre-modern conditions as tribal clan and
ethnic groups, the situations are deeply different. In this kind of
structure a person or individual love his/her community over all other
institutions. For him to his/her village, its surrounding, its region and
its existence is his/her Watan (Hometown). For this reason, the
perspective of an urban settlers is deeply and profoundly different with
rural settlers. If we visit a village, we can see the different tribes,
clans and ethnic groups there very clearly.
It is very clear that the original sin or basic
problems of ethnic conflicts have a close relationship with the political
ups and down. This is the state apparat and administration which shows who
is foe and who is friend. This is the political structure which encourages
tolerance or use his military forces against this or that ethnic group and
its culture. If we look to political and other events during the recent
centuries, would find the depth of this principle.
It is known that human communities form its begging
time, had passed from the line of applying forces and wars. We can see
that they have passed through bloods, fires and irons on a lot of
conflicts. Therefore, in the framework of existence and adaptation to
geography condition a lot of clans, tribes, and ethnic groups found
themselves inside a state. As it is clear, it was in the sixteenth century
in Europe that embryonic form of national or modern sate took shape. In
this regard, the basic policy of central power was as: An specific ethnic
group who due to different causes had got the political power, tried all
of its power to bring all other ethnic groups under her rule completely.
In this regards, we in length of human and ourselves history, are witness
of difficult and full of conflicts periods. A look to archive and memory
of history, we see the sever tragedy of force immigration of million
people in 7th and 8th BC by the Assyrians. It has
had been recorded the first ethnic cleansing and forced expel of ethnic
groups, but it was not the last one. We can see a long chains of this kind
of tragic events till now. Just half a century ago, the black smoke from
the burned bodies of the crematorium ovens of Nazis, blinded a lot of
people. We must not forget the tragic events of forced exile by Stalin in
1920s. These tragic events had put a deep wound in the soul of million
people which their cure take time and human works.
The Second Attitude, a Democratic Way
Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the
ethnic multiplicity did not create any problem for structures of empires.
But, with the formation of building nation and then national states, with
growing of national consciousness, the problems of different ethnic
The word of nation in the
process of social and literary changes was used in multiple meanings and
terms. The more ancient meaning was: religion, ritual, cult and sharia
law. Then it was used as a religion followers too., and later even a
Recently, with the blowing the wind of political
changes in line of modernism which its essen is democracy, this word has
been changed to people of a country or land. Today it has an important
place in our political literature.
The political structure of this word can be called
I believe that in simple language, nation is applied to
a wide geographical framework – specific international recognized borders
– in which people with different ethnic groups, languages and culture
structure live in the governmental institutions.
This structure is the creature
of a nation. This process can take shape when the above mentioned mini
structure institutions in a long run social - political changes and in the
framework the social contract be absorbed in a big institution of a
The fundamental question is: How we can put an end
point to ethnic enmity? What kind of methods and ways we can use for
reducing the situation of hate of each other and open the doors for good
behaviors and put an end to the atmosphere of war and enmity to peace and
reconciliation and replace it with cooperation of different ethnic
Before answering these questions, it is necessary to
clear that clashes and conflicts about different ways of seeking profits
among human-beings remains for ever and there is no points in the ending
it completely. It is part and parcel of our social existence. The basic
problem is how we can reduce these clashes?
It is clear that different ethnic groups can live in
peace with limited framework. But we can not expect them to open their
warm fold and embrace them. The most basic principle is that these ethnic
groups who live beside each other, must honor the ways and methods of life
and tolerate theses differences. The best and optimal condition is that
they in the time of crisis and catastrophes, help each other and cooperate
The basic question and problem is
for reducing or eliminating of ethnical conflicts and clashes, is it
necessary that we put a look in history? It is a common belief that the a
lot of today's facts and situation is the out come of past events. It is
real that they are existing today, but the we must look in the roots to
past and for bettering to future.
Relaxing and peace bringing experience after World War
II, for finding the real facts are particular important. The end of
fascism, put an end point to the oppression and persecution in this area
which have diverse communities organize.
The central and essence of this change and
transformation should change is the establishment of democratic political
on the basic values of democracy. The very important experience show that
in Europe, the apparat and ministration of STATE had played a big role
for shaping the calm and peaceful living relations among different ethnic
groups. Two very important attitudes are worth to mention here: 1 - The
deeds and actions for better living and bringing calm environment. 2 – Pay
deep attention for eliminating the causes of conflicts and clashes.
We and these ways
As we mentioned it, in our country live near 50 ethnic
groups who – although have the common roots - talk in various languages.
Since we have not till now a real and scientific censuses of our
population, we can not say with detail about the number of ethnic groups
I want to deal and shed a little bit light here with
and on one flower of this beautiful garden, named Hazaras or better is to
call them Mongolians. It should not be forgotten that the word Mughal is
Arabized of Mongol word.
We can say(Actually assume) that Hazaras is the third
largest ethnic group of Afghanistan, after Afghans (Pashtuns) and Tajik
The word of Hazara which means thousand
is a translation of Mongolian word of Minggan into
Persian. This word used in military structure of Genghis Khan army which
had a unit of thousand worriers.
It is worth to note that a group of worriers who are
settled down in the time of Timur (9 April 1336 –
18 February 1405), historically known as Tamerlane (Timur the Lame)
living in the north of Islamabad today. They called Hazaras too.
It is clear that the word Hazara which means a thousand
years are used in Persian language simply. In Pahlavi language it was
Hazarak. We can use it in Persian language such as the Millennium or
thousand years of Abo Raihan Biruni the famous scholar of tenth
I believe and as historical documents show, a lot of
people who were talking this or that dialects of Altaic languages, passed
the Oxus or Amo river before our time. A look on coming of Yueh -chi
people (160 BC) in this land with different weaves bring us closer to
their roots. So we can not say that they are the only survivor of Genghis
Khan. I believe that the word millennium, after the onslaught of Genghis
Khan, was entered in our literature by historians of that period.
These groups, along with
different waves of imitations and aggressions in different kind, arrived
in this country. They were later absorbed into the Persian language, but,
in their Persian dialect which we call it Hazaragi there are a lot of
Mongolian and Turkish words too. For this reason the Persian dialect or
Hazaragi is not an independent language, but it is a dialect of Persian
In history book of Seraj Tawarikh which is a minute
record work of Faiz Mohammad Kateb, he used many times the words of
Mongolian and Hazara as equal. In this case he has more emphasis on the
word of Mongol. In the first volume of this work in page (75) we see, “ …
Then Timur shah later left the battlefield and came back to Kandahar. He
discovered there another plots too and killed them and Mongols who are
famous as Hazaras are arranged in military unit of pages. They had been to
such of people that got the confidence of king” He in this volume of his
book, used the word of Mongols, more than five times.
This was Babur,
(1483–1530), first Mogul emperor of India c.
1525–30; descendant of Tamerlane. He invaded India c. 1525 and
conquered the territory that extended from the Oxus to Patna, who that for
the first time spoke about Hazaras and their
ties with their place as: Rostaq Hazaras of Badakhshan. Hazaras of
Turkmen. However, he said that they are living in West of Kabul and speak
End of their Autonomous
This ethnic groups in all fifteen and sixteen centuries
lived in an autonomous structure They did not obeyed the Safavid Empire,
Uzbek and Indian Mughal.
But, from the middle of 18th century onwards, under
the pressure of Afghans (Pashtuns) obliged to pay taxes at the time of
Amir Dust Mohammed (December 23, 1793 – June 9,
1863) rule. It put an end to their autonomous
However, it was Amir Abdul Rahman(r.1880-1901) who in
the line of crating the central government brought them under his control.
Many historians believe that Amir Abdur Rahman was the first ruler who
divided the legitimizing of power from the tribal structure of Afghan
(Pashtun). He for reducing the influence of tribal leaders and mullahs
gave the political power a divine cover and told that king drive his
authority from God. Thus he took the sword of power in his one hand and
the Koran in the other. He draw the picture of his country which in
result of civil wars and battles with Britain had reached to the brink of
chaos and anarchism as, “ Every molla, cleric and leader of religion,
tribal chief and even leader of a village, think themselves as an
independent king. In more than two hundred years, the strong and absolute
power of mollas and religion chiefs, had not broken by country's rulers.
Mirs (Chiefs) from Torkestan, Hazaras and chief of Ghalzai tribes were
stronger than kings and amirs.” (Gregorian, p. 129)
He in the framework of creation of the Central
Government, put down and crushed heavily any mutiny which took place from
each side, including form Pashtuns too. He according to this line of
politic, crushed down Pashtuns of Ghalzai, Shinwari and people of
Balurestan or Kaferstan too.
Then it came the turn of the Hazaras. Some historian
believe that the secret of his success can be seen as: The strong
concentration of power to the hand of different Hazara tribes, the inner
wars among them, struggles among different section for thrown, as Sardar
Eshaq whom the Hazaras sheikh Ali joined him, the deep conflicts between
Sunnis and Shiite Hazara, strong struggle among different suburbs of
Then he for crush their power, sent a large army to
crush them. They beside occupying their land, looted and plundered their
belongs too. They captured and imprisoned them. Among them the tribal
leaders of Hazaras suffered most. Their pasture were confiscated and gave
them to Pashtun nomads. Thus they suffered a big and great social tragedy
The First revolt and Rebellion
These events which had been done with heavy blows,
terror and oppression, cause a sever and bloody reactions. The first
rebellion began in 1892. The roots of cause was that a group of Amir
solders which among them were a lot of Afghans (Pashtuns), one night
rushed on the house of one of Hazara champion or hero. They beside looting
of the house, in the presence and wide eyes of this hero raped on his wife
collectively. This event led to the rebellion of he and his wife tribes.
Thus a big fire of revolt was kindled and spread on all territory of
Hazaras. Amir used all political and religious forces and to declare jihad
against Shiite. He even considered them pagan or infidels for crushing
them bloodily. He with the help of his large army raided. The outcome of
this bloody war, thousands of men, women and children of Hazaras were
captured as slave. They were sold as slaves to the markets of Kandahar and
Kabul. He for bringing fear on hearts of people cut their heads and made
minaret. (1893). A large group of Hazaras fled to Mashhad, and some even
This fact made a great enmity between Hazaras and
Pashtuns on one side and Sunnis and Shiite on other side. From these
bloody sores and wounds, coming down the blood and dirt of hate yet.
Dressings the Wounds
With the beginning of the twentieth century and the
start of the of Amir Habibolla's reign, (1901), for the first time a
decree of amnesty and pardon concerning this problem was issued. It was a
act of dressings the previous wounds.
The coup of 1978, at the beginning tried to crush the
resistance of Hazaras. But the presence of Soviet Union army brought a
space for emerging and expressing the oppressed ideas of ethnicity among
all ethnic groups, especially Hazaras. They made rebellion and once more
got a kind of autonomous .The Soviet forces ignored this fact. But the
basic and complicated problems were that then we see the inter tribal
blody wars among different Hazara tribes. This tragic event instead of
channeling the forces for instruction, they were applied for destructions.
It is interesting that the first little group by the
name of, “ New Hazara – Mongol” emerged. The the outlooks of different
sects of religions widen the gulf of conflicts badly. Just after the
withdrawal of Soviet Union army (1989) opened an area for the closing the
ranks of different groups, after they had passed through the sea of blood
and fire. We can see its crystallization in part of “Unity Party” which
was formed under Iranian pressure.
After 1992 that Islamic groups had been brought to
power, the fire of civil war destroyed the possibilities for bringing
peace and reconstruction to war torn land. Its pity and alas that the gulf
of differences widening badly now.
Current and Present Situation
Mr. Hamza Vaezi one of famous researcher, write as, “
For the first time in last 300 years, Hazaras as one of the main
contenders, have entered the arena of political life.”
“Without a doubt I believe that
to achieve this goal, the great pains and challenges are on the way. But,
this is a golden opportunity to utilize it to solve the problem.” it is a
famous saying, “ The opportunity knocks only once your door. If you do not
open the other, you would not see it again.”
But there are big signs as high
as Baba mountains, that in the period of last three decades on the line of
struggle for finding identities, a lot of deep changes occurred in
framework of our thinking on the relations among different ethnic groups,
Meanwhile the Hazara community
had got a high position from point of political and cultural influences.
They knew how to find a place for themselves concerning the political
power. We are witness that they put more efforts to learning science,
modern values, spreading the economical foundation, instate of stocking
military hardwares and recruiting military forces.
What we are witness, is that the
closed and traditional community of Hazara was crack down and opened its
door to open society. What make an important role for eliminating
prejudice is the spreading of cities. This fact pave the way for growing
the social thinking and prepare our mind for using all possibilities of
educations, development of cultural capacities, business, and economic
one. The real and vivid outcome of this processes is its influences on our
political actions for using of all civil levers as: Demonstrations,
strike and making associations, unions and poetical parties and civil
societies. These are strong levers for making the bright future of people.
New Changes and
With the beginning of twenty-first century, it was more
than a decade that Afghanistan from the perspective of the political
structure, had a failure state. Americans in a
conditioned response to her wounds which was the result of a terrorist
attacks, decide to topple down Taleban regime. This act of response was
strongly hasty and without any compressive plan. We can see the bad
results of these swift acts later.
What in this process belonged to the people, for many
political observers was very amazing. This expressing of surprise in not
groundless. Although we had passed through blood and fire, war and
destructions in the shapes of foreign and civil wars in last three
decades, the social fabric of this multi ethnic land had not been torn.!
We must seek and search the cause to the special characteristics of this
land. In this regards the famous principe that main national government,
in line with the ethnic groups are irreconcilable, not had any foothold.
In this part of Central and South Asia, the kingdoms and empires, were
going well with ethnic diversity within it parallel. In the course of
historical events, itself had become a principle.
In this kind of conditions, our ethnic groups, in time
of severe crisis they feel more the need of cooperation very quickly.
They see this cooperation more secure. During the Soviet occupation,
ethnic groups had found the opportunities to acquire knowledge and
especially ethnic consciousness. After the 1978 coup the ethnic hierarchy
which was the dominant country and in the top of its pyramid were Afghans
(Pashtuns) was broken down.
Due to this fact in the Bonn Conference, which was the
milestone of a new political structure in the country, we can see the
presence of ethnic groups clearly.
On the same time these ethnic groups leaders who had
roots in specific region and other parts of them lived over the borders,
simply reach to this fact that if they divide their part on the line of
disintegration, they will be swallowed quickly and have not any position
Barfield described it clearly as, “ Those who were
sitting on the table of discussion for making the new government, knew
very well that this is a prepared or imposed marriage than coming together
by love and friendship.”
Then what was on the table for actions was
reconstruction in all part of life, especially state to be changed on the
line of making and building a national state.
To legitimize this structure, the new leaders and the
international community called the National Congress. The members of this
big gathering ratified the Bone decisions and legitimized them. This act
paved the way for new constitution that major parts of its included the
constitution of 1964, which was the starter of democracy in our land.
This fact made the foundations of a structure of
democracy which in its essen is the separation of three branches:
executive, legislative and judiciary.
The basic problem from the starting point was that the
local structure which historically and traditionally was not under of
center, and the aggression of Soviet army and civil war put a new forces
for decentralization feelings, had not been considered really. They must
pay attention to this fact that giving more power to different regions
which is the basic tenets of democracy in a multi ethnic land is very
very important. It is clear fact that the federal system, I believe,
requires the very important preconditions which in its peak is
self-awareness and cultural preparedness of people. This must be done
through a social contact and there must be keep the balance between center
and regions. This matter requires an extensive discussion. This is very
important point that we must open the door of discussion and do not
consider it as taboo.
Look ! What is important that we
see and consider the contain not the form. Two of our close neighbors as
India and Pakistan accepted the federal system. The former leaders, due to
the line of their democratic thinking and within the framework of their
ideas, shaped the country on democratic principles. Now India is the
biggest democratic country. The pakistan leaders due to their line of
thinking shaped the country on militarism and authoritarianism way of
governing. Pakistan due to this political system faced sever crisis and
gave in one part of her land. India a multi ethnic and religions due to
her democratic system live peacefully and had been changed to a supper
power in Asia. Our intellectuals and leaders We must pay attention to the
political and social context and contain of a system not the form.
Looking to the Future
There is a proverb among our people as : Some time
occurring an evil event, bring virtues to us.”
After the terroristic onslaught on USA made an
opportunity that world community pay attention to our country which had
been forgotten and had left her in the grip of crisis.
They did it according to line of their benefits. But it
provide us a golden opportunity to shape our bright future to our
We in the period after 1973 coup, had tested a lot of
views, ideas and systems with deep bitter experiences. What for our future
is very very important, especially on the line of coexistence of near the
50 ethnic groups who make a beautiful mosaic of different cultures,
languages, customs, dressing etc is the shaping of such political system
is that this diversity not only be preserved, but, to accomplish a new
height. This kind of political system can be shaped in the framework of
liberal democracy which some philosophy call it, “The end of history and
This structure is based on capitalism way of
development – I believe that it high time to call a spade a spade. We must
say farewell to conception which had been shaped under our mind despotism
which linked to this kind of political system in the length of our
history – which can dig ground for more closing of different cultures of
of our ethnic groups. It provide strong levers for marching toward nation
building too. According to this line of development, big and little cities
emerging. We knew that cities based on financial economy and for giving
more opportunities for individual, can reduce ethnic and regional
prejudices. Thus more big city, less prejudices.
This structure can be considered a form of democracy in
which representatives of people by people are elected. This political
structure had been formed in the long course of hot discussions and
discourse which continued for centuries. In this system it is the elected
representative of people who get power of taking decisions. They act in
the framework of a constitution. The structure of these fundamental
Freedom of individual and the right of minorities such
as Freedom of thoughts, of meetings, of worship of different religions and
even their sects, right of property, equality of all for law, and above
all is the rule of law for every one.
For implementing these principles, there must be build
different investigating, controlling and defending institutions . The most
important point is that these institutions must institutionalized to be
guarded from onslaught of despotic minded people. In this system not
only the right of majority can be saved, but the right of minorities are
guarding too. It is worth to mention that at the beginning the conception
of majority and minority, would be in the framework of ethnicity, but
gradually ideas, thoughts and social and economic programs of parties will
One of the great achievements of this structural is the
changing of individual position from being a subject to a citizen. The
term of subject apply to person who follow his/her peer, while the term of
citizen is used to an individual who have free will and have equal right
to all citizen of a country. This is a big barrier on the way of changing
to despotism rule. This structure is the best guarantee for giving answer
to cultural and communal needs of an individual and especially of
different ethnic groups.
In this structure there are a lot of different means
for expressing the will of people. One example is referendum. Whenever
there emerge a hot and full of conflict problem, people with free will
decide that which way of solution is the best.
Last but not least, this structure have the best lever
for preventing the society for sliding toward despotism. This lever is the
presence of all sided freedom of thought in a lot of different forms.
As we seen, democracy is the only political structure
that in is big fold all of our different ethnic groups, can find their
places. It will make a big and beautiful mosaic in the frame work of a
Goettingen city, Germany
21 Hamal 1391/11 April 2012